This mass has certain melt characteristics which can be defined with a torque rheometer operated under fixed conditions of shear and temperature. The fusion characteristics of a PVC compound are manifest as fusion time, fusion torque, melt torque, melt viscosity, and heat and color stability. Test data are to be evaluated relative to the control lot. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Specific hazards statements are given in Section 8. The model that offers many advantages to explain the nuclear structure. According to him the magnetic monopoles were created during the Big Bang and are diluted as and the expansion of the universe. The session lasted just the morning, the afternoon has been reserved for the discovery of a Buddhist temple.
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The alloy of these materials or a part of them is molten and then subjected to an annealing by dropping the mixture onto a copper water cooled wheel. There is thus an amorphous alloy. The amount of oxygen is calculated from the weight increase. Calorimetry is mass flow with oil, allowing them to work at high temperatures. However, excess heat occurs when loading hydrogen or deuterium.
Yasuhiro Iwamura, Tohoku University, has done similar work to that of Kitamura. In fact the teams work together and thus check their results using the same samples. The alloys are made by the company Sendai Material Company by the method described above, and are then shared between the different teams. The results obtained are similar to those of Kitamura. Melvin Miles Laverne University of the United States reported the results obtained by Iraj Parchamazad on the use of zeolites loaded with palladium.
He developed a method to penetrate the palladium in the zeolite without affecting it. It provides 1. He gets a 1kW of output per gram of palladium. Roger Stringham of First Gate Energies in the United States showed its latest work on cavitation producing photoluminescence working at 1. By placing a copper target, it gets tritium. Hitoshi Soyama Tohoku University showed that in a hydrodynamic system with a water jet at high speed, it produces large amounts of bubbles, more than with ultrasound.
This jet is sent onto a titanium or nickel target and a green laser beam is directed at the target simultaneously with pulses of 4 to 6ns. It produces luminescence spots. These authors found helium-4 after the son of explosions. The author did the same experiment with a sphere of glass similar to the original using 35um tungsten son. He used capacitor 1. He also observed neutrons. The work will continue. Volodymyr Dubinko the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology in Ukraine has developed a cold fusion theory based on the anharmonic lattice vibrations. They are "Discrete Breather" outside the spectrum of phonons.
They focused on analyzing means in the experiments, for example by recording the sounds inside of a hollow cathode, by Fourier analysis of the electrolysis current variations, infrared measurements , etc Peter Hagelstein, to MIT in the United States recalled that he, energy nuclear reaction between deuterium nuclei were removed by phonons network.
For this he had shown the potential coupling between SD passage to He-4 by issuing a large amount of low energy phonons. Moreover, the work of Karabut and Vysotskii showing the production of X-rays when the vibrations are produced on a metal led him to prepare an experiment where the Ta must excite the W will issue X-rays. The experiment is being prepared. He showed excess heat has low loading rate. Moreover, he found the money on the palladium electrode. Perfection is not symmetry, but the asymmetry.
That is why if the crystal is perfect cold fusion does not occur, you have impurities, defects. Daniel Szumski, independent researcher of Davis in California, developed his theory to produce a cathode which works to give energy. It proposes to add certain metal isotopes to activate the electrode. Farong Wan of the University of Science and Technology Beijing showed that irradiating aluminum foil with deuterium ions, creating bubbles.
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Under the effect of kV electron bombardment of a transmission microscope was locally melted aluminum, indicating an abnormal phenomenon occurred. John Paul Biberian Aix-Marseille University reviewed the six experiments in progress: experiments with nickel powders, diffusion of deuterium through the wall of a palladium tube, the excitement of carbon powders with micro- oven, plasma electrolysis high voltage and high current, and the replication of the ICARUS experiment 9 Stanley Pons of the permanent boil.
Florian Metzler MIT in the United States showed with Peter Hagelstein the development of an apparatus for creating vibrations of various frequencies to generate X-rays. This is the counterpart to the Hagelstein theory mentioned above. Chang-Lin Liang from Beijing University Tsighua showed excess heat discharge experiments with thin film deposition of palladium on the walls of the glass container.
And the reaction is zero order. Swartz and Dr. Perhaps what we call the phenomenon should be up to those who have been wrestling with it for the last 25 years. With four modern CF criteria he rendered the tests down to zero. Posted by Frank Acland. Sept 22, - Cold fusion is based on the premise that you can, at Earth-like temperatures, force the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to fuse to make an atom of a larger size and, more importantly, create a bucketful of energy in the process. Nuclear fusion happens all the time in the sun, but that's millions of degrees hotter than anything we would see on Earth.
Method and apparatus for continuous production of LENR heat. The ongoing formation of nanoparticles are always energetic-highly active reaction surfaces on both the air-floating nanoparticles as well as on the surface of the metallic counter electrode available. The heat and the nanoparticles are removed with the hydrogen serving as a carrier gas from the reactor.
Does anyone believe that lie? Peter Hagelstein, MIT in the United States has a historical reminder of all that was done in the early years of the cold fusion. He showed how the already positive results were convincing to prove the reality of the phenomenon. The excess heat were shown with both palladium and heavy water, but with the nickel and ordinary water.
Although this topic is not directly of cold fusion, it is still interesting because the hydrogen charging rate is a critical factor in cold fusion. Melvin Miles from the University of LaVerne in the United States developed the mathematical model allowing Martin Fleischmann to have an accuracy of 0. The calorimeter developed by Fleischmann and Pons was of great simplicity and excellent accuracy, but very few people understood his qualities.
Yasuhiro Iwamura of Tohoku University in Japan has presented four of his team research directions:. The excess heat is reproducible, albeit not of the same magnitude. He improved the work done previously by Jiang Songsheng who had had problems with the reliability of thermocouples. Its heating system of the reactor making the outside through an oven, when there is no abnormal heat, the cell is cooler than the furnace.
He calculated in particular that the binding energy of the atomic defects was 0. He wants to create defects in the crystal lattice which will be able to accommodate the hydrogen atoms. Michael Halem, LENR to invest, a company that has invested in the Brillouin company decided to see for himself if the system worked as advertised. The system Brillouin he studied consists of a heated nickel tube having follow a particular processing used to circulate hydrogen. A flow of argon to the outside of the tube in an enclosure containing the tube serves to cool and measure the amount of heat produced.
In the system, they also rajoutent an RF signal.
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Her measurements yielded an excess of 20 watts for a power of 80 Watts. Jian Tian Clean Energy Technology Laboratory of the University of Changchun in China has made a historic reminder of what happened with the nickel hydrogen system.
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From the beginning of cold fusion, electrolytic nickel system with K 2 CO 3 was positive and reproducible results. Song Ding Huan of Xiamen University in China developed a theory suggesting that stimulation of surface phonons can contribute to cold fusion reaction. Stewart McWilliams, D. Allen Dalton, Mohammad F.
Mahmood, and Alexander F. Hydrogen is absorptive at visible to near-infrared wavelengths above a threshold temperature that decreases from K at 18 GPa to K at GPa. Transmission spectra at K and GPa indicate that the absorptive hydrogen is semiconducting or semimetallic in character, definitively ruling out a first-order insulator-metal transition in the studied pressure range.
Black lines are phase boundaries. Present measurements are filled circles for transparent white and absorbing gray, black hydrogen; black points are characterized via direct transient absorption measurement Fig. A thermal pressure of 2. The heavy black line is the onset of absorbing hydrogen in the present data. Prior measurements are the onset of reflectivity in shock compression  crosses and dotted line , the onset of visible absorption in isentropic compression  squares and dashed line , the location of anomalies in temperature with increasing heating laser power in the diamond cell  stars , and the dc conductivity color map based on interpolated data".
Hideo Kozima and the late John Dash. It is based on the fact that our American energy abundance can allow for shared prosperity, better schools, more funding for infrastructure, higher wages, and lower unemployment. July 19, - Judge Cecilia M. Altonaga has upheld Rossi's Complaint's Counts 1, 3, 4, 6. The Court dismissed Counts 2, 5, 7, 8 for failure to state a claim without prejudice.
Eugene Mallove. July 12, - "A photographer has shared haunting images of the abandoned Fukushima earthquake 'exclusion zone' after risking his safety to sneak into the disaster site. Lying completely untouched since March , the city of Fukushima was evacuated suddenly after the east coast of Japan was devastated by a massive earthquake followed by a huge tsunami.
Dangerous malware discovered in EU energy company. It affects all versions of Windows and has been produced to overcome next-generation firewalls and anti-virus software. The malware also shuts down when put into a sandboxed environment or a virtual machine to escape the notice of security teams. This type of attack is nothing new: the Russian state is still widely believed to be behind the Black Energy group, which shut down power to , people in Ukraine last year by attacking a power company.
In fact, many industrial control systems are replete with vulnerabilities. Cyber attackers who have gained remote access and can remain persistent in a network can cause a loss of view, manipulation of view, loss of control and denial of control for operators running critical infrastructure. Getting to the target of 50 percent clean energy generation is probably unattainable without significant contributions from nuclear power, but the industry appears to be withering.
The panel declared in April that the goal is technically feasible but warned that there was no slack in case of unexpected problems. Early studies will use only hydrogen or deuterium for simplicity, leaving the radioactive tritium for later. The council also agreed to a proposal from the United States for more regular independent reviews of key project aspects, because of considerable opposition to ITER in U.
Jean-Pierre Petit. CFRL website:. This is a tiny but important move, toward acceptance of LENR science. This will allow more researcher to have access to articles. Blog of Jean-Paul Biberian. JUNE 17, - "A new experimental airplane being built by NASA could help push electric-powered aviation from a technical curiosity and pipe dream into something that might become commercially viable for small aircraft. Charles F. Bolden Jr. For the X, the NASA researchers are designing narrower wings that are efficient during cruise flight, powered by two kilowatt electric motors at the wingtips that spin five-foot-wide propellers.
For takeoff and landing, 12 smaller 9-kilowatt motors powering two-foot-wide propellers will kick in to blow extra air over the skinny wings to generate the necessary lift. In flight, the smaller propellers are folded away. Peter Hagelstein and Dr. Louis DeChiaro Sept. The most significant of the claims was for the generation of large amounts of energy, presumed to be of nuclear origin, but without a commensurate amount of energetic nuclear radiation. The existence of such an effect goes against textbook nuclear and solid state physics, and no acceptable explanation was put forth at the time.
Most early efforts to replicate the anomalies claimed were unsuccessful. The Fleischmann-Pons Experiment was not accepted by mainstream scientists then and is not accepted today. Over the years a substantial amount of effort has been put in by groups that were able to replicate the excess heat effect, to make sure that the effect was real, and to gain some understanding.
A correlation was found between the excess power roduced and the deuterium flux at the cathode surface. In some experiments increased excess heat was seen at elevated temperature. He 4 was observed in the gas phase, correlated with the energy produced, and in amounts consistent with the mass difference 24 MeV between D 2 and He 4. There is no agreement at present among those in the field as to what physics is involved in these experiments, even though there have been a large number of proposals.
We give a brief outline of some of the theoretical ideas currently being contemplated. Progress continues at present, but there are changes in the focus of the research and in the researchers involved. There is at present some interest on the part of investors and industry, stimulated by the possibility of commercial products and the prospect of a new technology.
We will review some of the approaches which have been discussed in public in recent years and will summarize the progress reported by the entrepreneur community, including Andrea Rossi Industrial Heat, Inc. Mitchell Swartz Nanortech, Inc. How do we know that? Because six times as many people signed up , for a one-way ride than did for the Affordable Care Act which means that people would rather buy a ticket to the vast unknown than get healthcare as they age.
Flicker fusion threshold
What is holding back the transport of humans to Mars, and its colonization, is energy. We need more powerful rockets to take people there quicker, and we need more accessible, more portable distributed power sources for exploring, making outposts on, and terraforming of, the Martian surface. This paper briefly discusses present and soon-to-be available energy sources which will make this possible. However, this is not an electrolysis system as Pons and Fleischmann used, but sounds similar to the work of George Miley at Lenuco, who has reported excess heat in a pressurized vessel with nickel nanoparticles.
E- Cat astrophe!!!!! The Rossi distraction and diversion of the past several years has significantly impaired LENR progress. In the end, that may become the consumate definition of "The Rossi Effect. Leonardo Corp. New Energy World Symposium cancelled. So, it could be used, in the future, as an effective, clean, highly efficient, energy production system. Indeed, nanostructured materials have incredibly large surface area to volume ratios. Second, many also have new unexpected quantum mechanical properties: they enable quantum confinements, surface plasmon resonances, and superparamagnetism.
The fuel for the nanostructured material in the core is deuterium, and the product is believed to be de novo 4He produced by the deuterium fusion. The reactor openly demonstrated an energy gain COP which ranged generally from 5 to It is interesting to compare this parameter with the E-Cat, a much larger device. Thus the difference seems not so great. Proceedings of JCF Although some patents for LENR excess-heat-related inventions were issued in the year history of this field, they have been rare events.
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According to the patents, Kidwell has invented a method for producing excess heat by special preparation of palladium nanoparticles, two nanometers or less, placed on a metal-oxide support mechanism and subjected to pressurized deuterium gas. In the past, Kidwell has been critical of other researchers in this field. In his paper and in his patent application, Kidwell claimed that his experiments at NRL with hydrogen did not produce any excess heat.
There are strong reasons not to trust this part of his claim and his data. This blanket statement is wrong. The field has abundant credible references for low levels of low-energy neutron emission, alpha emission, production of new elements and anomalous isotopic changes.
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Kidwell threw another curveball while he was at the Rome conference. On Oct. In that, he suggested that, in a LENR transmutation experiment performed at Mitsubishi, the growth of praseodymium, a rare earth element reported by the Mitsubishi researchers, was the result of contamination. But Kidwell did not simply suggest that the Mitsubishi data was the result of sloppiness on the part of the Japanese researchers.
It was a shocking accusation, even more so because it came from a U. In singling out the praseodymium result, Kidwell implied that the decade-long transmutation research effort led by Yasuhiro Iwamura, in a clean room at Mitsubishi, which demonstrated six pairs of element changes, not to mention anomalous isotopic shifts, was the result of contamination. This was not the case. But when the polarized proton collides with a much larger gold nucleus, the neutrons' directional preference becomes larger and switches to the left.
The new measurements, which also included results from collisions of protons with intermediate-sized aluminum ions, showed the effect was real and that it changed with the size of the nucleus. In the collisions of protons with protons, the effect of electric charge is negligibly small," Nakagawa said.
In that case, the asymmetry is driven by interactions governed by the strong nuclear force—as the theory developed back in correctly described. But as the size, and therefore charge, of the nucleus increases, the electromagnetic force takes on a larger role and, at a certain point, flips the directional preference for neutron production. Jean-Paul Biberian: Jacques Ruer has demonstrated that the problem of packaging a cold fusion reaction can easily be solved using what is known in industrial chemistry. Jean-Paul Biberian: The third day was largely focused on theories.
This is a collaboration that began in October and ends in October This is a national project where Technova is the project leader. They studied the excess heat with copper and nickel-based nano-powders in a mass flow calorimeter with oil as the fluid. Excess heat is obtained with hydrogen, but not with deuterium. The powder is manufactured by "melt spinning" at Sendai Motor Company.
The samples were about g and produced 2. This experiment is parallel to that of Takahashi presented on Tuesday. Klimov of Russia showed excellent work with plasmoids. They obtained COPs of 2 to 10 with excesses greater than 3kW! On the electrodes they measured transmutations showing formation in particular of potassium, lithium and zinc. This experience shows a great progress of the Russians in this kind of work. Apparently a collaboration is going on with Germans to commercialize the process, although apparently it is difficult.
Francesco Celani of the IFNM in Italy made a reminder of all of this work with constantan nickel, molybdenum copper wire. He observed excess heat by addition of iron and potassium. He stressed the need for unbalanced conditions. David Nagel of George Washington University showed the progress of his lab, where they built an electrochemical cell that is also simulated by the comsol software.
He thinks that he transformed 0. It would be an atom of mass very close to that of cobalt. It shows that for this to happen it is necessary to place oneself in a non-Arcimedean space. Metzler and Hagelstein of MIT have shown their attempts to produce X-rays with phonons by exciting them by piezoelectric transducers.
Although they did not have positive results on the X-ray side, they observed abnormalities with a loss of radioactive cobalt placed on the iron plate which serves as resonator. He explained that it was necessary to have an invention that worked. Secondly, it is clear that one can not exclude facts already known. Finally, it is very important that the first claim is well written.
At the time of the discussion with the lawyer, it should be verified that the claims are well written. Georges Egeley of Ukraine gave a presentation on forgotten discoveries and their effects on cold fusion. He mentioned "dusty plasmas" with discharges with 30 to 60 keV in a hydrogen atmosphere. He also talked about the work of Tesla who had in made an electric car that rolled without reloading. In addition, Moray in Salt Lake City had developed a system to treat cancers. He also discussed the work of Papp, Jekkel, Correa and Gray. Jacques Ruer re-examined the explosion that occurred in in one of my electrolysis experiments with a cathode of a palladium tube.
The explosion had completely destroyed the Dewar in which the experiment was taking place. Jacques Ruer showed the difference between deflagration and detonation. In a deflagration the flame moves at a subsonic velocity, whereas in a detonation the velocity of the flame is supersonic and a very high pressure develops on the flame front. The presence of a hollow cathode was probably the cause of the violence of the explosion in the original cell. This shows that this kind of explosion is probably quite natural, and is not related to an effect of cold fusion.
Jacques advocates the idea to gather in a dedicated file the reports of all accidents and missed accidents in order to share the experience throughout the community and reduce the risk of future accidents. Itoh of Japan, resumed the Iwamura experiment of transmutation of cesium to praseodymium during the diffusion of deuterium through a palladium CaO multilayer with cesium deposition. Nevertheless, the authors have tried to verify by other techniques the reality of praseodymium production, in particular by RBS. Akito Takahashi of Japan reported on the results of work carried out by four universities, Technova and Nissan.
They worked with palladium, nickel, copper and ZrO2 alloys. They showed excess heat from 3 to 10 watts which lasted for weeks. Alakin of Russia reproduced an experiment made in by Wendt and Irion of production of helium during the explosion of tungsten wire by passing an intense current. These results were rejected at the time, but current results show that there is actually helium production. Iwamura of Japan reproduced the experiment of Mizuno during which nano-particles of nickel and palladium produced by plasma discharges.
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Excess heat is greater with hydrogen than with deuterium. Electron microscopic analyzes show the appearance of silicon, sodium and fluoride, as well as cadmium. Tom Claytor, a retired Los Alamos researcher, now retired, is continuing his work on measuring tritium during dumps with palladium and other metals. He also showed the production of excess heat with plasma discharges with Pt, Cu and Ni.
Malcolm Fowler showed the new mass spectrometry system that separates helium-4 from deuterium that have the same mass. Jean Paul Biberian O. Azizi showed the dramatic effect of the addition of mercury in the electrolyte to increase the loading of deuterium in palladium. Georges Egeley Hungary showed transmutation results obtained with its unique equipment he developed himself using a microwave oven magnetron. With this apparatus, it puts the ultra pure carbon powder, in a quartz sphere, and it triggers a plasma. After about ten minutes of operation, the carbon powder becomes magnetic.
An analysis by electron microscopy shows the presence of new elements, in particular iron. Despite 12 attempts, the results were all negative. Peter Hagelstein MIT showed deuterium absorption isotherms in that palladium modeled assuming that the deuterium is placed in the octahedral sites, but also in the tetrahedral. By varying the relative number of these sites, it has perfectly reproduced the experimental isotherms. Whereas until now it was believed that the tetrahedral sites were occupied after filling the octahedral sites in the calculation shows that the two types of site are filled simultaneously.
Philippe Hatt of Belgium has developed a model of the atomic nucleus assuming a structure based on the alpha particles, neutrons and protons. He was able to calculate and all nuclear binding energies. Andrew Meulenberg spoke physical reasons of existence DDL levels deep electrons. Slobodan Stankovic of Switzerland presented its work on the gas HHO Brown, showing the specific torches using this gas. Jinghao He of the University of Missouri has described an international collaboration to study the correlation between the local environment and the electromagnetic field in PdH x and x DPs.
It uses Hg that converts to Ta with two gamma emissions, the first isotropic and the second anisotropic. Tatsumi Hioki of Nagoya University in Japan studied the stabilization of palladium nano particles in a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is introduced into the meso pore zeolites. It analyzed X-ray crystal structure of the palladium particles. He noted that even after hydrogen charging, crystal size does not change. This shows that the palladium grains remain separated from each other. Emmanuele Marano of the University of Turin in Italy, studied by differential scanning calorimetry loading into hydrogen and deuterium of Pd-Ni-Zr alloys.
The materials are made by "melt spinning" and then oxidation. Thanks to the precision of the differential scanning calorimetry, it has been possible to demonstrate the various stages of oxidation. His calorimeter can not stay hot for long periods, he could measure the heat absorption of hydrogen and deuterium which is exactly what is expected theoretically. I enjoyed this week and a half with the first meeting in China and that of Japan.
The organization both in Xiamen to Sendai was excellent. Compared to ICCF19, there was this year much more scientific presentations, which was more interesting. Finally, there were participants from 19 countries, with 78 Japanese, 34 Americans, 8 French, Swiss I was impressed by the work done in Japan where the subject is taken very seriously, with a large national program, but also private equity and in universities.
It seems that very soon India will re-awaken to the Cold Fusion. The presentations were of high quality, as well as on testing theories. Great selection of food, services is very attentive, great experience overall, going back again soon! All I have to say is wow. The interior is very clean, very modern. The staff are great and the quality is actually worth the money! The flavours are so legit. Best all you can eat in Calgary by far!!